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All the hypotheses were tested at 0. Based on the findings, it was recommended that qualified and experienced Yoruba language teachers should be made to handle Yoruba language teaching especially in senior secondary schools. In addition, teachers should be exposed to in-service training to increase their knowledge and skills in the teaching profession. This is because the actual number of languages indigenous to Nigeria is still unknown, more languages continue to be discovered while others go into extinction Emenanjo in Aziza, It is generally accepted that of the or so languages of the world, Nigeria alone as over apart from these; English, French, Arabic and the Nigeria Pidgin NP also feature prominently in the polity.
Language has been described as the means by which a person learns to organize experiences and thought. According to Adebayo , the child learns to order and react to habits about environment through language. The totality of these habits is what anthropologists refer to as culture; language thus being the main link among all other components of the same culture. The languages of a nation, according to Malwi and Wolff are par of her natural resources. While the desirable benefit has positive correlation with the quantity of natural resources, harnessing the resources of language for nation building poses challenges to multi-lingual nations.
Adeosun observes that the performances of a Yoruba child in his mother tongue has not been encouraging and the recognition given the English language at the expense of the Nigerian indigenous languages is the bane of this poor performance. The result, according Isola is that the competence of the child in Yoruba language is dangerously affected. Several studies, including Babajide , Oyetade , Igboanusi and Peter have also investigated the attitude of Nigerians to English versus the various indigenous languages. It was observed by Babajide that as a result of the perception of English in Nigeria as a unifying tongue with a great instrumental significance, less emphasis was placed on learning and speaking of the various indigenous languages.
Presently, Nigerian languages are often associated with unfavorable attitudes. They also believed that these deficiencies contribute significantly to the growing rate of failure and subsequent drop out of students in tertiary institution. It takes a competent teacher to be able to teach the language skills effectively and to make them competent users of the Yoruba language.
To improve on these skills in students, the Yoruba language teachers should be effective and competent. Therefore, effective teachers should produce students of higher academic performance. Both teaching and learning depends on the teacher: No wonder an effective teacher has been conceptualized as one who produced desired results in the course of his duty as a teacher Uchefuna, l. This means that the teacher should possess some characteristics to make him an effective teacher. Anderson in his study added that educator has come to realized that any meaningful improvement in the education that students receive is highly dependent on the quality of the instruction that the teacher provides.
Darling-Hammond emphasized on the characteristics of a teacher. The result showed that students who are assigned to several ineffective teachers in a class have significantly lower achievement and gains than those who were assigned to several highly effective teachers. Teacher characteristics has to do with the teacher being able to posses some qualities such as mastery of the subject matter, utilization of instructional materials, the use of an effective teaching methods, and attitude of the teacher toward the subject, among others. Researchers and analysts argued that assigning experienced and qualified teacher to low performing schools and students is likely to pay off in better performance gaps Adegbile and Adeyemi, Anderson opined that the teacher must possess the knowledge and skills needed to attain the goal and must be able to use that knowledge and skills if the goals are to be achieved.
It has been established that there is a high correlation between what teachers know and what they teach. Adediwura and Bada stated in their study that nobody could teach what he does not understand or know.
They went further to state that they teachers must thoroughly understand the content of what they teach. A teacher whose understanding of topic is thorough users clearer language, their discourse is more connected and they provide better explanations than those whose background is weaker. Because of this, the teacher should therefore master the subject matter before teaching commences. Most teachers go into teaching without knowing what to teach.
This means that the qualification of a teacher matters when it comes to effective teaching. Darling-Hammond opined that certificate or licensing status is a measure of teacher qualifications that combines aspects of knowledge about subject matter and about teaching and learning. Its meaning varies across the states because of differences in licensing requirements, but a standard certificate generally means that a teacher has been prepared in a state approved teacher education program at the undergraduate or graduate level and has completed either a major or a minor in the field s to be taught.
In his observational theory, Bandura demonstrated that behaviours are acquired by watching another the model, teacher, parent, mentor and friend that performs the behaviour. The model displays it and the learner observes and tries to imitate it. Teachers are, invariably, role models whose behaviours are easily copied by students. What teachers like or dislike, appreciate and how they feel about their learning or studies could have a significant effect on their students.
Unfortunately, many teachers seldom realize that how they teach, how they behave and how they interact with students can be paramount to what they teach. This kind of teacher bias, however, can have a negative effect on their self-efficacy perceptions, that is, their personal judgments about their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to produce designated types of educational performances Bandura, ; Zimmerman, The way the teacher handles the class has a long way to go on the academic achievement achievements.
A teacher who exhibits a good attitude to teaching the English language or any subject should employ a good teaching skills and methods in knowledge delivery. Attitude as a concept is concerned with an individual way of thinking, acting and behaving. It has very serous implications for the learners, the teachers, the immediate social group with which the individual learner relates and the entire school system. Adediwura and Tayo sees the teacher as one that is interesting and must work his students into such a state of interest in that the teacher is going to teach him that every other object of attention is banished from his mind.
The behaviour of the teacher in the class reflects in the way the teacher handles the class. The teacher should be able to employ teaching method and use skills that would bring about effective learning in the class. This means that the teacher should be able to use approaches in a logical fashion, which the students can follow. Successful teachers tend to be those who are able to use a range of teaching strategies and who use a range of interaction styles, rather than a single, rigid approach Hanushek, In addition to the ability to create and adapt instructional strategies, strong research supports has linked student learning to variables such as teacher clarity, enthusiasm, task-oriented behavior, variability of lesson approaches, and students opportunity to learn criterion material Hanushek, and Zimmerman, For instance, teachers who provide structure for their students e.
High levels of learning may occur as well as learners feeling good about themselves and the material they are learning when teachers use instructional time efficiently. Learning takes place with ease and faster under teachers that are well organized. The way teachers interact with students influences their motivation and attitudes towards school. Skillful teachers summarize and link ideas together at the end of his lesson. This would help the teacher review summaries of previous work and help students link what has been learnt to what is coming.
The theory underpinning this study is the Leary Model of Interpersonal Relationship. The Leary Model has been extensively investigated in Clinical psychology and Psychotherapeutic settings Stract, It has proved to be a rather complete model to describe interpersonal relationships Foa, ; Lonner, In the Leary model, two dimensions are important.
The two dimensions have also been easily transferred to education. There have been reports of persistent poor performance of students in Yoruba language at the Senior Secondary School level of education. Scholars have suspected and speculated that the teachers lack the necessary professional qualification that is, skills, techniques, strategies, temperament et cetera , subject mastery and classroom behaviour required to communicated concepts, ideas, principles et cetera in a way that would facilitate effective learning have contribute significantly to the growing rate of failure.
The findings from this study would be useful to teachers, school administrators, Ministries of Education, Teaching Service Commission etc. This study adopted a descriptive design, which involves the use of observation and test for collection of data. This is because the variables studied have already been manifested and the researcher had no control over them. Nigeria simple random sampling technique was adopted to select the sample which comprised eight out of the twenty four public secondary schools in the study area. In each of the schools, a total number of one hundred SS2 students were selected to participate in the study, making a total of eight hundred SS2 student in all.
All the twenty-four 24 Senior Secondary Yoruba language teachers in the selected schools also participated in the study. Necessary corrections were made and the instruments were thereafter acclaimed to meet face, content and construct validity. The performance test was administered on a separate group of students from two schools, which are not part of the schools for the main study. The reliability was determined through test-retest method.
Yielding a correlation coefficient of 0.
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The researchers personally visited the schools that constituted the sample of study. The performance test was then personally administered on the SS2 students. The data collected was analysed using frequency counts and simple percentages. In addition, multiple regression analysis was used to test the formulated hypotheses. Hence the null hypothesis 2 is rejected.
Summary of Multiple Regression showing co-efficient of Determination. This leads to the fact that the factors accounted for 3. The null hypothesis 3 is therefore rejected. Hence, there is a significant composite effect of these factors on the academic performance of students in Yoruba language. This finding may be due to the fact that, the study investigated private schools. The disparity in the two findings may be due to the fact that this study looked at Junior Secondary Students. It was concluded that there is a significant composite effect of subject mastery, classroom behaviour, teaching experience and qualification on the academic performance of students in Yoruba language.
As such, these important teacher variables should be focused when tying to look for solution to related poor performance of students in Yoruba language. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made: Yoruba language teachers should endeavour to develop and improve themselves in the profession. This could be achieved by making attempts to upgrade their certificates and by attending seminars and workshops. They should also be encouraged to speak in their Mother Tongue at home.
Experienced Teachers should be allowed to handle Yoruba language, especially at the senior secondary level. They are aware of the standard required by these external examination bodies, they would be able to groom the students for future purposes. Different teachers should be made to handle different aspects of Yoruba language. This would enable them to be more efficient as they would be made to handle the aspect they have interest in and capable of doing. The school should encourage the students to take Yoruba language seriously by providing learning facilities.
Government should revisit teacher-training programme to cater for teaching skills, so as to equip the teachers with the basic pedagogical skills and content knowledge necessary for teaching Yoruba language. This should be supplemented with seminars and workshop specially organized for Yoruba language teachers. With this, the teachers would be aware of innovations in the profession. The government should also invest in the educational sector of the country. Learning infrastructures should be provided to encourage students to develop positive attitudes towards the subject. Government should also make sure that the teachers employed possess the necessary teaching qualifications to certify them to teach Yoruba language.
Teachers should also be motivated to teach in order to improve their attitude in teaching the subject. Essays in Honour of Ayo Bamgbose. Academic Journals 7 2. Educational Research and Review 2 7. Ed project of the Department of Teacher Edu http: Urban linguistics in Nigeria: A case of Language use in Lagos metropolis. Iranian Journal of Language Studies, 2, Inaugural Lecture Series University of Benin, Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research, Volume 37 3. Cadbury is Determined to Move Education Forward. Vanguard, December 27, , p. Retrieved on July 16, from www.
A Review of State Policy Evidence. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 8 1. Retrieved on April 4, from http: What our Students say about How we Teach. Global Journal of Human Social Science. Convergence in the Analysis of the Structure of Interpersonal Behaviour. Psychological Review, 68, Economic Outcomes and School Quality. Retrieved 5 July, from. Berlin, Germany; Peter Lang. Essay on Language, Culture and Development. Ibadan, Hope Publication Ltd. Is there a Difference in Classroom Performance? Volume 39 2 , Retrieved on December 5, Pakistan Journal of Social Science.
Retrieved August 13, from http: Evidence from Panel Data. Jostor Publishers, Volume Retrieved 5 May, from www. Ed Dissertation, Unpublished, Port Harcourt: University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Language Planning for Development in Africa. Eldoret, Moi University Press. Peer Effects in Academic Outcomes: Evidence from a Natural Experiment. Working Paper, Williams College.
Retrieved on February 16, from http: The world is now globalised by means of information and communication technology I. Education has played and will continue to play a crucial role in this process by means of teaching and learning processes. Paradoxically, ICT has also increased the gap between the knowledge and living standard in the lives of the persons in urban and rural areas across Nigeria and the world. This paper examines the plight of rural secondary schools in Nigeria towards access to modern instructional materials. It addresses the problems of lack of or inadequacy of modern instructional materials for use in Nigeria rural secondary schools in relation to social equity and educational opportunities for individuals, society and the Nigeria nation.
It examines its implications and proffers solutions and recommendations towards ameliorating the problems of lack of or inadequacy of modern instructional materials for use in the rural secondary schools across Nigeria. As we are in a new millennium, there is an increased awareness of the need to use modern scientific approach in teaching and learning processes in our schools. At present, there is a universal recognition of Information and Communication Technology I.
Nigeria has been at integrating I. She still has a great deal of instructional and administrative work in secondary schools carried out manually.
The condition is worse at the rural level. In an attempt to keep pace with development in computer education, Nigeria enacted a policy on computer education. Unfortunately, beyond the distribution and installation of computer in Federal Government Colleges FGCs , the project did not really take off before it was grounded. Lack of exposure and limited accessibility to modern instructional facilities is a major problem of secondary schools in the rural areas of Nigeria. These have consequential negative effects on the academic standard of the schools in those areas.
It may be a major factor responsible for poor performance of the students. The turnout of inefficient products of secondary schools from the rural areas may not be unconnected with it. Poor academic performance leads to end point for the pursuit of further education among students in the rural areas of Nigeria. This paper, thus examines the promotion and utilization of modern instructional materials in Nigeria rural secondary schools in relation to the effects of access to modern instructional materials and proffer ways forward to ameliorate the condition since education is a tool for social mobility, integration and national development NPE, Secondary Education is noted by Obasi and in the National Policy on education NPE, as the stage where children receive primary education and before the tertiary stage.
It is noted to be a comprehensive type of education where its broad goals are to prepare children who have completed primary education to have opportunity for education to a higher level, irrespective of sex, social status, religion or ethnic background. This implies that planning and provision for transfer of skills, knowledge and the information seeking capacity of individual learners and those in the rural areas must be supported, motivated and provided evenly across the length and breadth of Nigeria.
This translates into opportunities for all to have access to education regardless of gender, race, ability or disability and geographical location. This presupposes that the provision and distribution of education, educational resources and materials must be impartial, regardless of geographical locations. In this respect, by implication the secondary schools in the rural areas of Nigeria ought to have equal access to modern instructional materials like others in urban or metropolitan areas.
Social equity in educational opportunities in Nigeria allows individuals to participate in every sphere of life endeavours. It should not have constraining effects of socio-cultural, religious, political, economic and geographic impediments. It also includes the recognition and respect for the rights of every citizen, irrespective of ethnicity, language, religion, gender or other social attributes, to have equal rights, obligation and opportunities to education.
In this context, the activities of teachers, government or other agencies must not be in contradiction to exhortations on national access in classroom interaction across the country.
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For instance, all forms of discrimination in provision of educational facilities should be discouraged. Further, the Nigerian constitution provides for the protection of the rights of all persons in the allocation of resources politically, socially, educationally and economically. Incorporating the principles of Federal character in section 4 , requires every government body at every tier of the federation in their composition and activities to promote a sense of belonging and loyalty among all peoples of the federation.
This suggests that the events inside or outside the classroom should not be an exception, especially in the allocation of educational resources. Instructional materials include the use of Information and Communication Technology I. It is like a right of all persons, irrespective of geographical location to have access to I.
It is imperative to live-long value and is used to boost the quality of education. All persons who seek knowledge irrespective of differences in language, culture, gender and location desire to have access to it. Yusuf noted its potentials to accelerate, motivate, improve the teaching and learning processes.
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It promotes pedagogical activities, research work for students and teachers, especially the use of e-mails, mailing lists, chat-rooms, calculators, viewing centers, and interaction. It also encourages social process that facilitates collaboration among learners and teachers both in rural, urban and at the global levels, Daramola, The use of instructional materials such as educational films, plays and drama when screened and played in rural schools can help in building national integration and awareness. Radio talks, television shows and lessons can encourage students to witness and participate in activities outside their domain Kwache, Therefore marginalizing the rural schools access to such modern instructional materials is travesty on their fundamental rights and negates the principles of social equity and equal educational opportunities.
By exegesis of correlation, rural secondary schools in Nigeria are the schools that are situated in the rural areas of the country. They are influenced by lack of support of cultural innovation with little or no social change. They also stand discouraged in comparison to the urban secondary schools in the provision and application of instructional modern equipments. The life style of rural dwellers affects the teachers and learners and few activities that characterize school system. Their life style equally influence their responses to a wide range of school activities especially those programmes that fit into teaching and learning processes.
These may influence the ability of learners in the rural areas to respond to the overall school activities. Denial of modern instructional materials makes things worse for them. By extension, realization of normative order in the school environment relies greatly on the social and intellectual qualities of the teacher Bauman, The life of the rural teachers tend to be remote towards acquisition of new ideas, skills and knowledge by failure in enrolling for further educational programmes including Information and Communication Technology.
With this, the academic and intellectual capacities of teachers and learners are bound to be affected substantially during classroom interaction. It is improved technology that can allow teachers and learners in the rural secondary schools to keep abreast of the latest ideas around the world. School buildings do not only represent one of the physical elements of civilizational change, but the knowledge, ideas, skills, values and beliefs which are transmitted to the learners can also influence cultural change Bauman, These are in the form of human relationship, social stratification and mobility which can be engineered through adequate and the necessary provision of instructional resources to the rural secondary schools.
Thus the effective use of instructional materials by the teachers is likely to serve as a tool for social change in the rural community. The implication for the rural school is that, the advancement in educational technology has been erratic and unplanned. The residual effects on the rural secondary schools and their product are that they cannot cope with the modern direction of instructional materials and other soft wares now available for use in schools. This compounds further challenges as education has become a competitive enterprise where the urge for further education and social mobility is increasing by day.
It would require their exposure to the exegesis of academic tests and examination for which they are not properly prepared. This has often been the case for the poor performance and output of students from Nigeria rural secondary schools. The challenge is enormous and the response should be urgent. The required condition in Nigeria now is a compulsory knowledge of the use of computer by all students in our secondary schools this is with the hope of catching up with the technological skills of the millennium.
It is a stringent condition. This is because the condition imposed requires the students from the rural secondary schools to face the challenges without adequate exposure to the training and skills in computer education. Besides, Nigeria Government is yet to meet the international requirement of funding education proportionately with her national income budget. This is meager and constitutes problem of funding instructional materials which require a huge capital investment.
The financial base of the rural secondary schools are often weak as they are financially cash striped and cannot on their own budget for huge capital ventures without government support. National Board of Statistics NBS has shown that there are huge gaps between the provision of instructional materials in the rural and urban secondary schools by the Federal, State, Local Government and the other educational agencies Obasi, The rural secondary schools in Nigeria have no access to electricity and lack other means of power generation.
In Nigeria, power generation is still a major problem of the rural dwellers as infrastructural developments of most rural schools are at its lowest ebb. Thus, there are wide gaps in the provision of the basic educational resources between the rural secondary schools and the ones located in the cities in Nigeria. The challenges are many. Asanya and Ighodora noted some of the challenges and to be included among the others are the following:. Infrastructural deficiencies such as lack of steady power generation which is even worse in the rural areas of the country.
The price of modern instructional materials such as computer is several times higher in Nigeria than what it costs in more advanced countries. Besides only few schools are equipped with good classrooms, studios with T. Other instructional materials such as the printers, monitors, projector, papers, disc drives, modern chalk board etc are beyond the reach of rural secondary schools.
Where there are skilled teachers, other problems naturally include problem of installation, maintenance, operation, network administration and local technicians to service or repair these equipments and the other facilities. In most of the rural secondary schools, most of the facilities are non-existent, hence the traditional chalk and duster approach still dominates in secondary school pedagogy Anao, Nigerian providers are often in partnership with foreign communication companies who usually provide poor services to Nigerian customers and often exploit and defraud them. Others charge high fees, thus limiting access to the use of the internet.
In rural areas of Nigeria, they are nonexistent. Thus, there exist great discrepancy between relevant software supplied and the need of the country Solomon, The teachers too are poorly paid in Nigeria and therefore cannot venture into self sponsorship to acquire new skills. Any recommendation and suggestion that would involve the promotion and utilization of modern instructional materials should take cognizance of the principle of social equity in educational opportunities. For Nigerian rural secondary schools, there should be a consideration of the social context of their locales. The following suggestions are thus raised to combat the problems faced by rural secondary schools in Nigeria.
Education is a catalyst to achieving such objectives. Discrimination in rights and privileges in the distribution of social amenities for educational purposes should be a matter for grave concern because it leads to marginalization from social, economic and political opportunities of the rural inhabitants in Nigeria.
This will emasculate the idea of social equity in educational opportunities for all Obasi, There is therefore the need to address the fears of the rural students who face the fierceness of educational competition, such as N. There should be functional approach to fill the gap created by discrimination in the distribution of educational resources because they are instrumental to the success or failure of the rural secondary school students in Nigeria.
Paradoxically, diversity and integration are two contradictory realities which Nigeria must reconcile if the country must achieve non-fetishistic, non-emblematic and collective success in education Obasi, There is need to fill the widened gap that exists in the provision of instructional resources for teaching and learning of the different school types and locations across the country. The provision of educational technology in the rural secondary schools will no doubt directly improve the quality of education for the young people of the country.
Teaching and learning exercise should be part of total commitment of Government and should be tied to provision of instructional materials. This is because they have societal and individual values as they help in the cognitive development of learners and the effectiveness of the teachers both in the rural and urban areas of the country.
This will also cater for the welfare of all personnel involved in the running of our secondary schools across the country. This should include equipping the schools appropriately and adequately to enable them cope with the modern trend in teaching and learning. Further, the Nigerian nation stands to gain, if we begin investment on education from developing it from the rural areas.
The private entrepreneurs should be encouraged towards this direction as well. This will promote the provision and utilization of modern instructional materials in the rural secondary schools. The onus of taking Nigeria out of the woods in the new millennium lies in effective teaching and learning processes.
This requires a commitment to civic culture of the modern times which are rooted in modern instructional materials. Emphasis should be on developmental decision-making bodies and policy formulators in the country to consider the place of instructional materials as a powerful mechanism for bridging the educational gap within the rural and urban secondary schools in Nigeria. At present, the quality of teaching in the rural schools is endangered and the quality of learning is distorted as well Abdulazeez, The promotion of social equity and educational opportunities to create access to instructional materials will no doubt help to improve the discrepancies witnessed in the academic performance of the rural secondary schools in Nigeria and the life style of Nigerian rural dwellers.
Society, Knowledge, Incumbation and Management: Lagos, The Guardian Newspaper. Teaching and Learning in Urban Society: The Imperative of Information and Communication Technology. National Bureau of Statistics. Journal in Educational Technology and Society, 8 i , Pg pp — United Nation Development Programme.
The features of the new media have broadened the scope of technological possibilities for public communication, they are also communication devices for personal use. Due to this participatory nature, different political parties were able to use the new media for political campaigns before the general elections in Nigeria Presidential and gubernatorial candidates of the various parties used the different types of the new media ranging from Face book to blogs.
The new media possess many advantages in presenting violence during political campaigns. Basically, the new media provided no opportunity for violence since the electorate could send their view, comments and suggestions to the politicians without resorting to violence. However, because of the problems of access and use, some of the electorate were not part of the political campaigns through the new media, especially, the blogs and face book. So, the political aspirants still had to organize political rallies in different locations in Nigeria.
Nigeria gained independence in October, and since then, quite a number of elections have been conducted in the country, it has been o norm for politicians vying for national offices to embark on a long and strenuous journey of the entire country to campaigns to the electorate, soliciting their support and vote. This traditional way of conducting, political campaigns in Nigeria is certainly very costly considering the wide geographical terrain of the country. This traditional practice of moving from one nook and cranny.
In addition to this, the vastness of the country is certainly strenuous it the politicians aspiring for national offices continue to campaign in all parts of the country. Campaigning round different parts of the country leaves room for violence from rival parties. This has been the case in time past until the campaigns for the general election in Nigeria began. The political campaigns for the general elections were unprecedented in Nigeria as the politicians went beyond the traditional way of campaigning to employing the new media. According to Michael and twokwagh , the new technologies are the new media and distribution systems.
The new media or new information communication technologies, according to Akinwumi , also offer avenues for recreation in addition to providing means of communication with friends, acquaintances and establishing relationships with new people. Hence, the new media have brought about significant changes and improvement in the way people communicate with one another.
The new media enable people to send and receive information and communicate messages from different locations in the world two matter where they are physically located, the new media make communication possible in a faster and more effective and efficient manner. Also, the new media provide access to a wide range of information. With the access in vast sources of information, users can then share and exchange their views. With the use of the internet, the world wide web, Face book, weblog, short message service, politicians, especially presidential aspirants were able to communicate with the electorate in new, efficient and convenient ways without being physically present with the electorate thereby limiting the possibility of encountering violence from opposing parties.
Presidential aspirants willing to establish inline presence, recognition and create awareness about their political intentions also used the weblogs for this purpose. The politicians who had things to say to convince the electorate and who also had access to the new media used them to great advantage. Messages were sent via blogs, face book, short message service on mobile phones, websites to all who made efforts to read them. The new media have changed the entire world.
The new media gave Nigerian politicians the opportunity of communicating with a large heterogeneous number of people not only in Nigeria but worldwide as Nigerians in Diaspora could also read and know the plans of the politicians. Even non-Nigerians were exposed to the campaigns through the new media. The new media created new opportunities for political communications across geographical location, space and even time.
Since the new media have been used for other purposes, the adoption of the new media for the political campaign meant a radical departure from the traditional manner of conducting campaign filled with violence from the beginning to the end. With these features of the new media both the sender and receiver can effectively participate in the communication process without undue interference. Other features of the new media according to Kumuyi and Adeyinka are that they comprise a range of technology products and activities that enable the recording, storing processing and retrieval, transmission and receiving of information.
Williams, Rice and Rogers also note that de-masstification and synchronicity are other features of new media. So, both participants can be message producer and consumer depending on who sends a message first or who has something significant to share with others. Participants are also no longer restricted by time, they can communicate at whatever time they choose to Payne argues that each of the new technologies permits us to communicate with more people regardless of where we are.
So there is the advantage of exchanging views with many people anywhere they are, in short, people can participate with more case. They not only read the profle promises, messages and manifestoes of politicians but also had the opportunity of giving feedback in form of comments and views. The electorate also expressed their opinions, in response to the campaigns of the politicians. They were also able to ask questions and give suggestions via the new media. Since the new media are interactive by nature, they enable, both the sharing and exchange of message at the same time or almost immediately.
The electorate because personality involved in the political campaigns. The paper is based on the uses and gratification approach, which according to Littlejolin , focuses on the consumer the audience member rather than the message, Baran , states that with the uses and gratifications approach, the media do not do things to people, rather, people do things with the media. The basic postulation of the uses and gratifications approach is that audience members have certain needs which make them to be selectively exposed to attend to and retain media messages because of the perceived gratifications derivable from such messages.
Thus, this approach emphasizes the fact that people are important in the process of communication because they choose content, make meaning and act on that meaning. This approach also stresses the reciprocal nature of communication. In addition, they intend to determine whether the messages are pro-people or not so as to assist them in making their choice of right candidates and this explains who they ask questions directly from candidates and express their views. The second theory on which this paper is anchored is the diffusion of innovation theory.
This theory provides explanation for the stages of diffusion of innovations, it also explains the rate at which new technologies are spread to different groups of people over time. According to Severin an Tank and , the diffusion of innovation theory is about the social process of how innovations new ideas, practice, objects, etc become known and are spread throughout a social system. The adoption of the new media especially Face book. Blogs and twitter, for political campaigns was not widespread among all politicians during the elections campaigns, however, the early adopters were able to benefit from the opportunities offered by those new media.
In the history of political campaigns in Nigeria, violence has been a recurring snag. Akinada notes that the right to campaign in Nigeria is a constitutional right and an offshool of the right to freedom of expression. However, this freedom to campaign has been consistently abused by political parties in Nigeria. Political campaigns in Nigeria have been characterized by threats, harassment, attack and sabotage. The attitude of the average politician has been to win elections at all costs so violence has been a part of the campaigns since the first republic.
For instance, Akinboye Consequently, while some of them had radical and even violent inclinations…some had conservative disposition. Thus began the struggle for power with those who had violent inclination physically contending for supremacy over other parties. Corroborating this view, Adekunle , observes that over the years, the politicians have become more desperate and daring in taking and retaining political power: Many lives and property have lost due to this violent approach to taking and retaining power.
Unemployed and willing young men have also been used as party thugs to perpetuate violence against opposing political parties, Brown These thugs intimidate, harass, brutalize, humiliate, kidnap, maim and in some instances assassinate opponents who are seen as stumbling blocks or obstacles to their political benefactors. The battle for supremacy by politicians precipitated by the negative attitude to win elections by all means only shows that politics in Nigeria is perceived as a means of acquiring wealth.
Politicians do not place priority on serving the electorate, rather they place emphasis on acquiring power and money. Ajakaiye and Nyemutu Roberts rightly assert that since Nigeria became politically independent in , it has been one long and chequered search for a stable, democratic and cost effective political order. This lack of political order was evident in the way past political campaigns were conducted to politicians across the country. Political campaigns were essentially qualified to violence.
Political campaign grounds were literally turned into battle grounds as these party thugs unleashed terror against rival political parties. Ake, cited in Nyemutu Roberts and Benjamin observe that as it was in the first Republic, the use of force and fraud by governments and parties in the second Republic during elections robbed those elected of legitimacy because they did not represent the real choices of the people.
This use of force or violent political struggle became the order of the day, violence was the norm rather than the exception during political campaigns. Even in the immediate past and present democratic dispensation of three political parties in PDP, ANPP and AD , thirty in and now sixty-five in , the unhealthu rivatry among political parties leaves much to be desired. Just as this is true of the United States, even in Nigeria, the general elections campaigns were unprecedented in the history of political campaigns in Nigeria.
Nigeria politicians took advantage the new media for campaigns. As it happened in the United States general elections campaigns in , the Nigerian political scene was transformed via the new media. According to You Tube , the CNN-You Tube debates employed the power of the internet to make the public to participate in the creation of a national political dialogue. Ricke also notes that the CNN-You Tube debate provided a unique shift in the political debate landscape.
For the first time, the public was invited to become an instrumental participant in the creation of debate materials. In political campaigns in the United States and Nigeria, the new media have played a prominent role as the politicians communicated with numerous people. In the general election campaigns in Nigeria, politicians communicated directly with a large number of people apart from the traditional ways of meetings in large halls, stadia and other public, places.
Politicians also communicated directly with the electorate in addition to the use of the old media. A new dimension was thus added to political campaigns in Nigeria through the use of the new media. The facebook was one of the new media used by politicians for the first time in Nigeria for the election campaigns. According to Baghdady One of the current virtual communities is Face book. Face book is a free access website that allows users to join networks, such as a school, place of employment, or geographical region to connect and interact with other people.
Users can post messages for their friends to see and update their personal profile, to notify friends of happenings in their life. It is reported that the Face book community has a population that exceeds 69 million users representing a range of ages including children, teenagers, youth, and adults from both genders and from many nationalities. Another type of new media used by the politicians for the first time is the blog otherwise called Weblog. Technorati states that blogs combine text, images and links to other blogs, web pages and other media related to its topic.
Baltatzis argues that weblogs, or blogs have become one of the latest forms of online communication to gain widespread popularity and notoriety. Some of the politicians used Face book and related blogs wherein they showcased their profiles and plans to the electorate. Since the Facebook community has a wide population, the profiles and campaigns of those politicians who used the Facebook were therefore exposed to a large number of people cutting across children, teenagers, youths and male and female adults from different countries of the world.
Politicians who used Facebook, blogs and other types of new media were able to reduce violence as they did not receive physical assaults from opposition parties in the process of using the new media. It was also impossible for their supporters to engage in physical acts of violence at that particular moment. Despite the fact that some politicians used the new media to great advantage for the general election campaigns, because of the problem of access, a particular part of the electorate was excluded.
Although there are now low cost mobile phones that are relatively affordable for the average. Nigeria, several people still lack access to the internet because they cannot afford the cost of access, others are not yet exposed to Face book, blog, or even inviter because these are termed elitist as only those who have the means could use them, Payne , observes that while technology has made the world smaller, communication more rapid and access easier, it has also created a new set of problems and new issues concerning the use of the gadgets available to us.
The rural population was also excluded from this trend because as ljeh , notes, access to the new media especially the world wide web www and other facilities is restricted to the cities due to the level of technology adoption rate which is slower in the rural areas than the cities. The rate of adoption of technology especially the new media is slower in the rural areas than the cities so the rural areas are still far behind in adopting most of the new media.
Another problem related to those of accessibility and affordability is irregular power supply which if effectively tackled would reduce the cost of access to the new media even in the cities and rural areas as well. The politicians that tried to avoid violence by using the new media for the election campaigns have demonstrated their understanding of the dynamic nature of democracy worldwide. Curbing Political Violence in Nigeria. Institue of Security, The international Clearling House on Children and the Media, McGraw Hill Campanies, Inc.
Institute of Security, Facebook , Goodluck Ebele Jonathan , Ph. Sage Publications, Michael, B. Ibadan University Press, Le mythe comme le confirme Georges Gusdorf est la structure de la connaissance. The myth presents itself as first shapes of the knowledge. Man acquires this kind of knowledge generally of the universe in general and of his environment in particular.
The symbolism of the myth is its manifest will to scrutinize the reality while passing it and while conceding it its character of out of time and out of space. The symbol vivifies the mythical empiricism and gives it a related sense to the sensualism constructing the knowledge; the myth rejects the triviality and makes use o a serious physiognomy to translate its perspectives.
It makes popular wisdom office at time of philosophy, of sociology, of theology, without forgetting the science the cosmology, the astrology and other. The myth, the symbolism, the knowledge, empiricism, the banality…. I- Le symbolisme des mythes. Le concept mythe vient du mot grec muthos qui traduit: Dans cette perspective G.
Essayons de cerner les contours de cette affirmation. Elle montre que les mythes parlent des mouvements des astres et de leur influence sur les conditions de la vie humaine: Que traduit ce fragment de texte?
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Essayons de comprendre cette affirmation. Le mythe a donc une importance primordiale dans le processus de la construction de la connaissance. Il est alors clair que: Mais quel genre de Socrate? Since every language has it own peculiar linguistic culture, translation practice goes beyond knowledge of semantics of the two languages involved or ability to compare one with the other.
A good translation is a product of good mastery of message deverbalisation. La traduction est une entreprise linguistique. Je donne ci-dessous, une liste de quelques exemples de signification des mots hors du discours. Que veut dire le sens? He used to walk in the middle of the road, holding it in conversation …After that; he avoided those noisy lorries too, with the vagabonds inside them. Having walked one day and one right…, He had just given notice to all the Ozo men to seek admission into their honoured hierarchy….
Your proposal is excellent, said the men of the title…, That very morning. Udenkwo had accused her of the spite…, So, he intervened let me have peace this morning pp. Que pensons-nous de cet exercice? It was wanderful, he thought, but even more was tragic. Her shoes obviously from Gabon, mmust have cost a fortune.
Merveilleux, pensa-t-elle, et surtout tragique. Il faudra imaginer pour lui une promesse de marriage special.
Ce texte parle du style de la Fontaine: There are many languages in Nigeria. Out of those languages, three are selected and recongnised as national languages i. Yoruba, igbo and hausa language.
The Nigerian constitution of also stated clearly that English language is the official language i. Language is a potent vehicle for the transmission of culture, values, norms and beliefs from one generation to another. The multilingual status of the nation creates a problem in the language choice. Describe your issue Have a question not already answered in the links at left or on our main FAQ page? In laser physics, author of 3 scientific book and scientific publications worldwide. Lectured in the biggest universities in the world: Cambridge, Oxford, Seattle, Austin, Goettingen or more.
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